Texas traversed a tumultuous path to become the 28th state in December
1845. The name of the popular Six Flags amusement-park franchise, which was
founded in Texas in 1961, is derived from the fact that the state’s 268,000 square
miles have been controlled by six different governments — Spain, France,
Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the Confederacy and the United States.
The Lone Star State is home to nearly 29.1 million people, making it the
second most populous state behind California. It has added more residents
than any other state each year since 2006, including more than 379,000 from
July 2017 to July 2018. Its growing population and booming economy go
hand in hand: According to a report from Business Insider, Texas leads the
nation in crude-oil and wind-power production. It also accounted for $226
billion in manufacturing output in 2017, or 10% of manufacturing in the U.S.
Texas has six of the 25 largest cities in the country (Houston, San Antonio,
Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth and El Paso), each of which has more than
500,000 residents. With an estimated population of 2.3 million as of July 2018,
Houston is a national hub for companies in the advanced-manufacturing,
energy, biotechnology and digital-technology sectors, according to the
Greater Houston Partnership. San Antonio, meanwhile, houses the nation’s
largest military hospital and has a life-science and health care sector that
contributes more than $40 billion annually to the local economy.
Building permits for new single-family homes in Texas increased for a fifth
straight month as of this past May, with the Lone Star State accounting for
16% of all construction starts nationwide, the Texas A&M University Real Estate
Center reported. The Austin metro area had more than 1,700 permits issued
that month, a 12% year-over-year increase, while the 875 permits issued in the
San Antonio area outpaced larger metros such as Chicago, Miami and Seattle.
A report released earlier this year by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating
Board stated that “a much higher level of cooperation” is needed between the
state’s K-12 public schools and its colleges and universities. Texas sends only
52% of its high school graduates directly to college, below the national average
U.S. Census Bureau statistics show that 39% of Texans are Hispanic, but they
represent 51% of the state’s population that lives below the poverty line. In 2017,
the state had a median household income of $59,206, but that figure dropped
to about $45,000 for black and Hispanic households across the state.
Home sales and prices
According to a year-end 2018 report from Texas Realtors, the state’s median
home price increased 4.4% year over year to $232,900 and the number
of homes sold increased 1.7% to 344,030. Statewide, the median price
per square foot of $116.36, the 3.3 months of for-sale inventory and the
101,534 active listings all rose on an annual basis. The state issued more
than 115,000 single-family building permits and more than 99,000 new
homes were sold last year.
The same report noted that more than 60% of homes in the Lone Star State
sold for $100,000 to $300,000. Homeowners spent an average of 20.7% of
their income on housing costs, compared with 29.2% for renters. The largest
share of Texas homeowners (22.2%) were between the ages of 45 and
54. The state had a homeownership rate of 62%, although rates in metro
areas such as Beaumont, McAllen, Brownsville and Midland topped 67%.
The unemployment rate in Texas was 3.4% as of this past July, which was
30 basis points below the national rate. Texas has had declining or stable
unemployment every month since September 2016, when its rate was
4.8%, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported.
The state’s labor force grew 2.6% annually this past July to 12.8 million and
several employment sectors — including mining and logging; construction;
financial activities; and leisure and hospitality — exceeded that clip,
according to BLS. A report from the Texas Workforce Commission noted
that, as of July 2018, the state’s labor force had grown 18% beyond its
pre-recession peak, compared to 7.7% growth for the nation.
Texas had a per capita personal income of $49,161 in 2018, which was
92% of the U.S. average of $53,712.
Delinquencies and foreclosures
Attom Data Solutions reported that foreclosures in the Lone Star State, as
measured by the number of auctioned and real estate owned properties,
peaked at more than 150,000 in both 2006 and 2010. Last year, foreclosures
increased on an annual basis, but the 45,977 such filings represented
a 64% decrease over an eight-year period.
CoreLogic reported that the Houston metro area had a 30-day delinquency
rate of 4.9% and a 90-day delinquency rate of 1.6% this past March.
Both figures were higher than the U.S. rates of 2% and 1.4%, respectively.
The Houston Chronicle noted that nearly 75% of the homes in Harris
County that flooded during Hurricane Harvey in 2017 were in areas
that didn’t require flood insurance. The 267 Harris County homes sold
at auction in July 2018 were more than double the number sold in
3 Cities to Watch
According to census estimates, Dallas grew 12.3% from 2010 to 2018
and now has more than 1.3 million residents. A report from the
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas said that annualized job growth in the
Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex was 3.7% in second-quarter 2019, the
fastest pace in nearly three years. Construction and mining were the
metro area’s fastest-growing employment sector at that time, while
trade, transportation and utilities was its largest job sector. The area
attracted a record 27.2 million visitors in fiscal year 2017 for events like
the NFL draft and Cotton Bowl Classic.
The city in south-central Texas has seen growth that has been even more
explosive than that of Dallas, with its population expanding 15.5% from
2010 to 2018 to more than 1.5 million people. Real estate brokerage
Redfin called San Antonio a “somewhat competitive” housing market
this past August, with the typical home spending 35 days on the market
and selling for about 2% less than list price. The average sales price of
$220,000 at that time, however, was up 3.8% year over year.
The nation’s fourth-largest city is in the midst of an economic surge.
The Houston metro area added 79,800 jobs during the 12-month
period ending in May 2019, while its unemployment rate dropped
90 basis points between April and May of this year, labor statistics
show. The metro area’s largest employers include Memorial Hermann
Health System, ExxonMobil, Shell Oil Co. and United Airlines.
As of first-quarter 2019, Houston’s cost of living was 4.6% below the
U.S. average and nearly 26% lower than the nation’s 20 most populous
areas, according to the Council for Community and Economic Research.
What the locals say
“The cost of living, employment opportunity and corporate
transfers have been some of the main contributors to our
continued growth. In fact, SmartAsset.com came out [in May 2019]
with a ranking of the best cities for living the American dream
and Texas had 13 of the top 25 cities in the U.S. … For the last three
years, we have been in a crazy, multiple-offer [home-purchase]
environment. This year, we’re not seeing it as much, but it’s still
a hot market. We are seeing some negotiating. We’re seeing
where some sellers are willing to pay some costs.”
Fairway Independent Mortgage Corp.,
Sources: Attom Data Solutions, Austin American-Statesman, Business Insider, CoreLogic,
Council for Community and Economic Research, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Greater
Houston Partnership, History.com, Houston Chronicle, Redfin, San Antonio Economic
Development Foundation, SmartAsset.com, Texas A&M University Real Estate Center,
Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Texas Realtors, Texas Workforce Commission,
The Dallas Morning News, The Texas Tribune, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Census
Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, World Population Review